Friday, April 14, 2017

12 Ways to Simplify Your Life

Courtesy of: NetCredit

Saturday, April 1, 2017

Airline Pilot - a Dream Job?

Pilots are highly trained professionals who either fly airplanes or helicopters to carry out a wide variety of tasks. Most are airline pilots, Co-Pilots, and flight engineers who transport passengers and cargo.

But one out of five pilots is a commercial pilot - involved in tasks such as dusting crops, spreading seed for reforestation, testing aircraft, flying passengers and cargo to areas not served by regular airlines, directing fire-fighting efforts, tracking criminals, monitoring traffic, and rescuing and evacuating injured persons.

Generally, the most experienced pilot, the captain, is in command and supervises all other crew members. The pilot and the Co-Pilot, often called the first officer, share flying and other duties, such as communicating with air traffic controllers and monitoring the instruments.

Some large aircraft have a third pilot, the flight engineer, who assists 
the other pilots by monitoring and operating many of the instruments and systems, making minor inflight repairs, and watching for other 
aircraft. The flight engineer also assists the pilots with the company-, air traffic control, and cabin crew communications.

New technology 
can perform many flight tasks, and virtually all new aircraft now fly with only two pilots, who rely more heavily on computerized controls.”

Before departure, pilots plan their flights carefully. They thoroughly check their aircraft to make sure that the engines, controls, instruments, and other systems are functioning properly. They also make sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They confer with flight dispatchers and aviation weather forecasters to find out about weather conditions en route and at their destination.

Based on this in
formation, they choose a route, altitude, and speed that will provide the safest, most economical, and smoothest flight.  When flying under instrument flight rules — procedures governing the operation of the aircraft when there is poor visibility — the pilot in command, or the company dispatcher, normally files an instrument flight plan with air traffic control so that the flight can be coordinated with other air traffic.

Take-off and landing are the most difficult parts of the flight, and require close coordination between the pilot and first officer. For example, as the plane accelerates for takeoff, the pilot concentrates on the runway while the first officer scans the instrument panel.

To calculate the speed they must attain to become airborne, pilots consider the altitude of the airport, outside temperature, weight of the plane, and speed and direction of the wind. 

The moment the plane reaches takeoff speed, the first officer informs the pilot, who then pulls back on the controls to raise the nose of the plane. Pilots and first officers usually alternate flying each leg from takeoff to landing.

Unless the weather is bad, the flight itself is relatively routine.  Airplane Pilots, with the assistance of an autopilot and a flight management computer, steer the plane along their planned route and are monitored by the air traffic control stations they pass along the way. 
They regularly scan the instrument panel to check their fuel supply; the condition of their engines; and the air conditioning, hydraulic, and other
systems. Pilots may request a change in altitude or route if
stances dictate. For example, if the ride is rougher than expected, pilots may ask air traffic control if pilots flying at other altitudes have
reported better conditions; if so, they may request an altitude change.
This procedure also may be used to find a stronger tailwind or a weaker
headwind to save fuel and increase speed. 

In contrast, because he
licopters are used for short trips at relatively low altitude, helicopter pilots must be constantly on the lookout for trees, bridges, power lines, transmission towers, and other dangerous obstacles. 

Regardless of the type of aircraft, all pilots must monitor warning
vices designed to help detect sudden shifts in wind conditions that can
cause crashes.  Pilots must rely completely on their instruments when
visibility is poor.  On the basis of altimeter readings, they know how
high above ground they are and whether they can fly safely over
mountains and other obstacles. 

Special navigation radios give pilots precise information with the help of special maps, tells them their exact position.  Other very sophisticated equipment provides directions to a point just above the end of a runway and enables pilots to land completely without an outside visual reference.

Once on the 
ground, pilots must complete records on their flight and the aircraft maintenance status for their company and the FAA.

The number of non-flying duties that pilots have depends on the
ployment setting. Airline pilots have the services of large support
staffs and, consequently, perform few non-flying duties. However, be
cause of the large numbers of passengers, airline pilots may be called
upon to coordinate handling of disgruntled or disruptive passengers.
Pilots employed by other organizations, such as charter operators or
businesses, have many other duties. They may load the aircraft, handle
all passenger luggage to ensure a balanced load, and need to supervise
ing; other nonflying responsibilities include keeping records, scheduling flights, arranging for major maintenance,and performing minor
aircraft maintenance and even repairs.

Some pilots are flight instructors.  
They teach their students in ground school classes, in simulators, and in dual controlled planes and helicopters.  A few specially trained pilots are examiners or check pilots. They periodically fly with other pilots or pilot’s license applicants to make sure that they are proficient.

Working Conditions: Because of FAA regulations, airline pilots, flying
large aircraft, cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or more than 
1,000 hours a year.  Usually, airline pilots fly an average of 75 hours
a month and work an additional 75 hours a month performing non-
flying duties. 

Most pilots have a variable work schedule, working 
several days on, then several days off. Most spend a considerable amount of time away from home because the majority of flights involve overnight layovers. When pilots are away from home, the airlines provide hotel accommodations, transportation between the hotel and airport, and an allowance for meals and other expenses.

Airlines operate flights at all hours of the day and night, so work schedules often are irregular. Flight assignments are based on seniority. An airline seniority number is normally assigned to a pilot on completion
of training. The sooner pilots are hired, the lower their seniority num
ber, the stronger their bidding power.

Commercial pilots also may have 
irregular schedules, flying 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next.  Because these pilots frequently have many nonflying responsibilities, they have much less free time than do airline pilots.  Except for corporate flight department pilots, most commercial pilots do not remain away from home overnight.  But, they may work odd
hours.  However, if the company owns a fleet of planes, pilots may fly
a regular schedule. 

Flight instructors may have irregular and seasonal 
work schedules, depending on their students’ available time and the weather. Instructors frequently work in the evening or on weekends.
Airline pilots, especially those on international routes, often experience
jet lag—fatigue caused by many hours of flying through different
time zones. To guard against pilot fatigue, which could result in unsafe
flying conditions, the FAA requires airlines to allow pilots at least 8
hours of uninterrupted rest in the 24 hours before finishing their flight duty. 

Commercial pilots face other types of job hazards. The work of Testpilots who check the flight performance of new and experimental planes, may be dangerous. Pilots who are crop-dusters may be even exposed to toxic chemicals and barely ever have the benefit of a regular landing strip. Helicopter pilots involved in rescue and police work may be subject to personal injury.

Although flying does not involve much physical effort, the mental
stress of being responsible for a safe flight, regardless of the weather,
can be tiring.  Pilots must be alert and quick to react if something goes
wrong, particularly during takeoff and landing.